A general history of the world: the world after 1500

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The answer is that before 1500, humans lived largely isolated from each other. Ethnic groups are in fact dispersed in complete isolation. It was not until about 1500 that there was the first direct contact between ethnic groups. Only then did they finally connect, whether it was the Bushmen of South Africa, the cultured Chinese mandarins, or the primitive Patagonians. Therefore, 1500 is an important turning point in human history. We can compare Columbus, who arrived in San Salvador and broke the bonds of regional isolation, to the astronauts, who landed on the moon and broke the bonds of planetary isolation. In fact, the history of the world in a strictly global sense did not begin until the voyages of Columbus, Da Gama, and Magellan. Before that, there were only relatively parallel histories of different nations, but no unified human history. If the monogenetic theory of human origin is correct, then there is a unity or common origin at the beginning of human history. However, during the long millions of years of the Paleolithic Age, human beings gradually dispersed to most of the land on the earth's surface. Later, the end of glacial periods raised the sea level of the oceans, thereby separating Africa from Europe, North and South America from North-East Asia, and Australia from South-East Asia — to mention only a few major separations. Since then,jacuzzi swim spa, humans have lived in varying degrees of regional isolation. Some people are reduced to complete isolation, as in the case of the Australian aborigines, from their last few migrations from Southeast Asia to James. · Captain Cook arrives in Australia, having had no contact with the outside world for more than 3,000 years. The inhabitants of North and South America were almost equally isolated, and the last of their voyages from Siberia to the Americas occurred about 10, 000 years before the voyage to Columbus. Later, although Norwegian expeditions reached the northeastern coast of North America and Polynesians may have reached South America,hot tub wholesale, they did not have any lasting impact on the Indian population. About 6,000 years ago, sub-Saharan Africa was also largely isolated from the rest of the world, because the Sahara Desert had become very dry at that time and became a huge obstacle to people's migration. However, despite this, black Africans actually have limited and intermittent contact with the outside world. Largely as a result of these connections, they enjoy certain advantages not enjoyed by Amerindians and Australian Aborigines. Southeast Asian seafarers brought sweet potatoes and bananas, Middle Easterners brought mining, smelting and iron forging skills, and Arabs spread their civilization and religion to blacks from their bases in North and East Africa. These and other advances enabled the Negroes to exploit natural resources more efficiently and to produce food in greater quantities, resulting in a corresponding increase in their population and a general improvement in their cultural level. The rest of the world consists of Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Throughout its history, North Africa has been more closely linked with the northern Mediterranean than with sub-Saharan Africa. For the sake of convenience, the continent from Morocco to Kamchatka and from Norway to Malaya can be called Eurasia. It is Eurasia that constitutes the "heartland" of world history. It occupies two-fifths of the world's land, jacuzzi bathtub manufacturers ,american hot tub, contains nine-tenths of the world's population, and is the birthplace of the earliest and most advanced human civilization. The history of the world before 1500 is essentially, as explained here, the history of Eurasia. Only in Eurasia, there is a huge and continuous interaction between different nations and civilizations. While Australian Aborigines and Amerindians lived in complete isolation and sub-Saharan Africans lived in semi-isolation for thousands of years, Eurasians, on the contrary, have been constantly exchanging technologies, ideas, institutions and objects with each other throughout this period. Interactions within Eurasia were much smaller before 150 years than after 1500, when direct maritime connections were established between regions. Before 1500, the interaction within Eurasia varied from time to time. Generally speaking, this interaction was most limited in the early millennia, and then gradually expanded in scope and speed. For the most part, the ancient civilizations that flourished in the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Indus, and Yellow River valleys during the millennia BC were confined to limited locales. Of course, they had some dealings with each other; indeed, the true origins of the civilizations of these regions are partly illustrated by the spread of the various technologies of the Mesopotamian civilization. The fact remains, however, that these early civilizations were like oases in the desert, surrounded by vast expanses of barbarism, beyond which communication was limited. During the centuries of classical civilization, this pattern changed radically. By A.D. 100, the height of the classical era, the Roman Empire had spread throughout the Mediterranean, the Parthian Empire had spread throughout the Middle East, the Kushan Empire had conquered northwestern India, and the Han Empire of China had encompassed all the rest of the region as far east as the Pacific Ocean. Thus, the political entities of this period occupied entire regions rather than just large river basins; the civilized world stretched like a continuous belt from the Scottish Highlands to Southeast Asia. As a result, new and large-scale contacts have emerged between regions. During this period, various religions such as Christianity and Buddhism began to spread to most parts of Eurasia, which not only had a profound religious impact on these areas, but also had a wide political and cultural impact. At this time, the mixed Greco-Middle Eastern culture, known for its Greek culture, also spread from the eastern Mediterranean to all directions-to Western Europe, North Africa, India, and to some extent to China and Japan. Interregional trade also increased greatly during this period. Trade is conducted by land and sea. Linen, copper, tin, and glass from the Roman Empire, cotton, spices, and precious stones from India,endless swimming pool, spices from Southeast Asia, and silk from China were exchanged, with silk being the most important. monalisa.com

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